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Vacuum permittivity

Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the electric constant. For the analogous magnetic constant, see Vacuum permeability. For the ordinal number ε0, see Epsilon numbers (mathematics). Value of ε0 Unit 8.8541878128(13)×10−12 F⋅m−155.26349406 e2⋅GeV−1⋅fm−1

Vacuum permittivity, commonly denoted ε0 (pronounced pasak "epsilon nought" or "epsilon zero") is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum. Alternatively it may be referred to gandar the permittivity of free space, the electric constant, or the distributed capacitance of the vacuum. It is an transendental (baseline) physical constant. Its CODATA value is:

ε0 = 8.8541878128(13)×10−12 F⋅m−1 (farads per meter), with a relative uncertainty of 1.5×10−10.[1]

It is the capability of an electric field to permeate a vacuum. This constant relates the units for electric charge to mechanical quantities such as length and force.[2] For example, the force between two separated electric charges with spherical symmetry (in the vacuum of classical electromagnetism) is given by Coulomb's law:

FC=14πε0q1q2r2\displaystyle F_\textC=\frac 14\pi \varepsilon _0\frac q_1q_2r^2

The value of the constant fraction, 1/4πε0\displaystyle 1/4\pi \varepsilon _0, is approximately 9 × 109 N⋅m2⋅C−2, q1 and q2 are the charges, and r is the distance between their centres. Likewise, ε0 appears in Maxwell's equations, which describe the properties of electric and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation, and relate them to their sources.


The value of ε0 is defined by the formula[3]

ε0=1μ0c2\displaystyle \varepsilon _0=\frac 1\mu _0c^2

where c is the defined value for the speed of light in classical vacuum in SI units,[4]:127 and μ0 is the komparasi that international Standards Organizations call the "magnetic constant" (commonly called vacuum permeability or the permeability of free space). Since μ0 has an approximate value 4π × 10−7 H/m,[5] and c has the defined value 299792458 m⋅s−1, it follows that ε0 can be expressed numerically as

ε0=1(4π×10−7N/A2)(299792458m/s)2=62500022468879468420441πF/m≈8.85418781762039×10−12F⋅m−1\displaystyle \beginaligned\varepsilon _0&=\frac 1\left(4\pi \times 10^-7\,\textrm N/A^2\right)\left(299792458\,\textrm m/s\right)^2\[2pt]&=\frac 62500022468879468420441\pi \,\textrm F/m\[2pt]&\approx 8.85418781762039\times 10^-12\,\textrm F\cdot \textrm m^-1\endaligned (or A2⋅s4⋅kg−1⋅m−3 in SI base units, or C2⋅N−1⋅m−2 or C⋅V−1⋅m−1 using other SI coherent units).[6][7]

The historical origins of the electric constant ε0, and its value, are explained in more detail below.

Redefinition of the SI units Main article: 2019 redefinition of the SI base units

The ampere was redefined by defining the elementary charge sumbu an exact number of coulombs gandar from 20 May 2019,[4] with the effect that the vacuum electric permittivity no longer has an exactly determined value in SI units. The value of the electron charge became a numerically defined quantity, not measured, making μ0 a measured quantity. Consequently, ε0 is not exact. As before, it is defined by the equation ε0 = 1/(μ0c2), and is thus determined by the value of μ0, the magnetic vacuum permeability which in turn is determined by the experimentally determined dimensionless fine-structure constant α:

ε0=1μ0c2=e22αhc ,\displaystyle \varepsilon _0=\frac 1\mu _0c^2=\frac e^22\alpha hc\ ,

with e being the elementary charge, h being the Planck constant, and c being the speed of light in vacuum, each with exactly defined values. The relative uncertainty in the value of ε0 is therefore the same aksis that for the dimensionless fine-structure constant, namely 1.5×10−10.[8]


Historically, the perpaduan ε0 has been known by many different names. The terms "vacuum permittivity" or its variants, such as "permittivity in/of vacuum",[9][10] "permittivity of empty space",[11] or "permittivity of free space"[12] are widespread. Standards Organizations worldwide now use "electric constant" gandar a uniform term for this quantity,[6] and official standards documents have adopted the term (although they continue to list the older terms pasak synonyms).[13][14] In the new SI system, the permittivity of vacuum will not be a constant anymore, but a measured quantity, related to the (measured) dimensionless fine structure constant.

Another historical synonym was "dielectric constant of vacuum", sumbu "dielectric constant" was sometimes used in the past for the absolute permittivity.[15][16] However, in modern usage "dielectric constant" typically refers exclusively to a relative permittivity ε/ε0 and even this usage is considered "obsolete" by some standards bodies in favor of relative static permittivity.[14][17] Hence, the term "dielectric constant of vacuum" for the electric constant ε0 is considered obsolete by most modern authors, although occasional examples of continuing usage can be found.

As for notation, the constant can be denoted by either ε0\displaystyle \varepsilon _0\, or ϵ0\displaystyle \epsilon _0\,, using either of the common glyphs for the letter epsilon.

Historical origin of the pedoman ε0

As indicated above, the patokan ε0 is a measurement-system constant. Its presence in the equations now used to define electromagnetic quantities is the result of the so-called "rationalization" process described below. But the method of allocating a value to it is a consequence of the result that Maxwell's equations predict that, in free space, electromagnetic waves move with the speed of light. Understanding why ε0 has the value it does requires a brief understanding of the history.

Rationalization of units

The experiments of Coulomb and others showed that the force F between two equal point-like "amounts" of electricity, situated a distance r apart in free space, should be given by a formula that has the form

F=keQ2r2,\displaystyle F=k_\texte\frac Q^2r^2,

where Q is a quantity that represents the amount of electricity present at each of the two points, and ke is the Coulomb constant. If one is starting with no constraints, then the value of ke may be chosen arbitrarily.[18] For each different choice of ke there is a different "interpretation" of Q: to avoid confusion, each different "interpretation" has to be allocated a distinctive name and symbol.

In one of the systems of equations and units agreed in the late 19th century, called the "centimeter–gram–second electrostatic system of units" (the cgs esu system), the constant ke was taken equal to 1, and a quantity now called "gaussian electric charge" qs was defined by the resulting equation

F=qs2r2.\displaystyle F=\frac q_\texts^2r^2.

The pasal of gaussian charge, the statcoulomb, is such that two units, a distance of 1 centimeter apart, repel each other with a force equal to the cgs bidang of force, the dyne. Thus the bab of gaussian charge can also be written 1 dyne1/2 cm. "Gaussian electric charge" is not the same mathematical quantity pasak modern (MKS and subsequently the SI) electric charge and is not measured in coulombs.

The idea subsequently developed that it would be better, in situations of spherical geometry, to include a factor 4π in equations like Coulomb's law, and write it in the form:

F=ke′qs′24πr2.\displaystyle F=k'_\texte\frac q'_\texts^24\pi r^2.

This idea is called "rationalization". The quantities qs′ and ke′ are not the same poros those in the older convention. Putting ke′ = 1 generates a ihwal of electricity of different size, but it still has the same dimensions pivot the cgs esu system.

The next step was to treat the quantity representing "amount of electricity" poros a fundamental quantity in its own right, denoted by the symbol q, and to write Coulomb's Law in its modern form:

 F=14πε0q2r2.\displaystyle \ F=\frac 14\pi \varepsilon _0\frac q^2r^2.

The system of equations thus generated is known poros the rationalized meter–kilogram–second (rmks) equation system, or "meter–kilogram–second–ampere (mksa)" equation system. This is the system used to define the SI units.[4] The new quantity q is given the name "rmks electric charge", or (nowadays) just "electric charge". Clearly, the quantity qs used in the old cgs esu system is related to the new quantity q by

 qs=q4πε0.\displaystyle \ q_\texts=\frac q\sqrt 4\pi \varepsilon _0.Determination of a value for ε0

One now adds the requirement that one wants force to be measured in newtons, distance in meters, and charge to be measured in the engineers' practical perihal, the coulomb, which is defined as the charge accumulated when a current of 1 ampere flows for one second. This shows that the patokan ε0 should be allocated the pasal C2⋅N−1⋅m−2 (or equivalent units – in practice "farads per meter").

In prinsip to establish the numerical value of ε0, one makes use of the fact that if one uses the rationalized forms of Coulomb's law and Ampère's force law (and other ideas) to develop Maxwell's equations, then the relationship stated above is found to exist between ε0, μ0 and c0. In principle, one has a choice of deciding whether to make the coulomb or the ampere the fundamental bagian of electricity and magnetism. The decision was taken internationally to use the ampere. This means that the value of ε0 is determined by the values of c0 and μ0, poros stated above. For a brief explanation of how the value of μ0 is decided, see the article about μ0.

Permittivity of real fasilitas

By convention, the electric constant ε0 appears in the relationship that defines the electric displacement field D in terms of the electric field E and classical electrical polarization density P of the medium. In general, this relationship has the form:

D=ε0E+P.\displaystyle \mathbf D =\varepsilon _0\mathbf E +\mathbf P .

For a linear dielectric, P is assumed to be proportional to E, but a delayed response is permitted and a spatially non-local response, so one has:[19]

D(r, t)=∫−∞tdt′∫d3r′ ε(r, t;r′, t′)E(r′, t′).\displaystyle \mathbf D (\mathbf r ,\ t)=\int _-\infty ^tdt'\int d^3\mathbf r '\ \varepsilon \left(\mathbf r ,\ t;\mathbf r ',\ t'\right)\mathbf E \left(\mathbf r ',\ t'\right).

In the event that nonlocality and delay of response are not important, the result is:

D=εE=εrε0E\displaystyle \mathbf D =\varepsilon \mathbf E =\varepsilon _\textr\varepsilon _0\mathbf E

where ε is the permittivity and εr the relative static permittivity. In the vacuum of classical electromagnetism, the polarization P = 0, so εr = 1 and ε = ε0.

See also

Casimir effect Relative permittivity Coulomb's law Electromagnetic wave equation ISO 31-5 Mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field Sinusoidal plane-wave solutions of the electromagnetic wave equation Wave impedance


^ .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"2018 CODATA Value: vacuum electric permittivity". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged tolok ukur (link) ^ "electric constant". Electropedia: International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEC 60050). Geneva: International Electrotechnical Commission. Retrieved 26 March 2015.. ^ The approximate numerical value is found at: "Electric constant, ε0". NIST reference on constants, units, and uncertainty: Fundamental physical constants. NIST. Retrieved 22 January 2012. This formula determining the exact value of ε0 is found in Table 1, p. 637 of PJ Mohr; BN Taylor; DB Newell (April–June 2008). "Table 1: Some exact quantities relevant to the 2006 adjustment in CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2006" (PDF). Rev Mod Phys. 80 (2): 633–729. arXiv:0801.0028. Bibcode:2008RvMP...80..633M. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633. ^ a b c International Bureau of Weights and Measures (20 May 2019), SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (9th ed.), ISBN 978-92-822-2272-0 ^ See the last sentence of the NIST definition of ampere. ^ a b Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Newell, David B. (2008). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 80 (2): 633–730. arXiv:0801.0028. Bibcode:2008RvMP...80..633M. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2017. Direct link to value.. ^ A summary of the definitions of c, μ0 and ε0 is provided in the 2006 CODATA Report: CODATA report, pp. 6–7 ^ "2018 CODATA Value: fine-structure constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged kesetaraan (link) ^ SM Sze & Ng KK (2007). "Appendix E". Physics of semiconductor devices (Third ed.). New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 788. ISBN 978-0-471-14323-9. ^ RS Muller, Kamins TI & Chan M (2003). Device electronics for integrated circuits (Third ed.). New York: Wiley. Inside dapur cover. ISBN 978-0-471-59398-0. ^ FW Sears, Zemansky MW & Young HD (1985). College physics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-201-07836-7. ^ B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991) ^ International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 12, ISBN 92-822-2213-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2017 ^ a b Braslavsky, S.E. (2007). "Glossary of terms used in photochemistry (IUPAC recommendations 2006)" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 79 (3): 293–465, see p. 348. doi:10.1351/pac200779030293. S2CID 96601716. ^ "Naturkonstanten". Freie Universität Berlin. ^ King, Ronold W. P. (1963). Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory. New York: Dover. p. 139. ^ IEEE Standards Board (1997). IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Radio Wave Propagation. p. 6. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.1998.87897. ISBN 978-0-7381-0580-2. ^ For an introduction to the subject of choices for independent units, see John David Jackson (1999). "Appendix on units and dimensions". Classical electrodynamics (Third ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 775 et seq. ISBN 978-0-471-30932-1. ^ Jenö Sólyom (2008). "Equation 16.1.50". Fundamentals of the physics of solids: Electronic properties. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-540-85315-2.

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