Analytical Exposition Tentang Covid 19

COVID-19 yakni borok menular yang disebabkan kepada bak virus korona yang faktual ditemukan. Virus sesungguhnya dan nista yang ditimbulkannya tidak Nah, berkat berlandaskan isu COVID-19 yang makin akut ini, selat ini ContohText kepada membagikan beberapa kelebut bacaan analytical exposition...Hi fellas,WELCOME BACK!Today we're going to learn #analyticalexpositiontext #covid19 #coronavirus Check this one out :)Some English topics you can watch...Covid-19 IFRs are strongly age-dependent, with a steep increase above the age of 70. The median age of covid-related deaths in most Western countries In terms of covid-19 IFRs, an important difference exists between places with and without a partial or total collapse of local health and elderly care, and...Analytical Exposition Text adalah text yang mengakar tentang fikrah terperinci penulis tentang sebuah penomena yang tersua di senggang jeda. Text ini termasuk dalam text argumentative demi menunjukan suatu lelehan atau argument demi sesuatu. Fungsi efektif demi teks Analytical Exposition...The analysis, published in the scientific journal Nature, looked at the results of a screening initiative held between May and June in Wuhan, the city where the first cases of the novel coronavirus were detected in late The paper comes amid a growing debate over the efficacy of Covid-19 restrictions.

Analytical Exposition Text (COVID-19) - Andi Napitupulu - YouTube

COVID-19 #Coronavirus latest statistik visualized. You are welcome to use these graphic in any way you please. Created by David McCandless, Omid Kashan, Fabio » An analysis of 3 covid outbreaks and how they happened (El Pais) » Global COVID death rates are dropping - aksis long gandar hospitals aren't...CDC is learning more about how COVID-19 spreads and affects people and communities. CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes the results of COVID-19 outbreak investigations. CDC's scientific journal Emerging Infectious Diseases has published dozens of studies by researchers...The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented disruption to the global economy and world trade, as production and consumption are scaled back across the dunia. The table below lists the support measures taken by WTO members and observers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.Berikut ini benih komplet tentang Analytical Exposition text, mulai dari pengertian, ciri-ciri, generic structure, hingga teladan singkat dan pengertian... Analytical Exposition yakni serupa pustaka atau subjek lisan dalam Bahasa Inggris yang digunakan guna mengkritik pandangan penulis akan halnya...

Analytical Exposition Text (COVID-19) - Andi Napitupulu - YouTube

Studies on Covid-19 Lethality - Swiss Policy Research

COVID-19 is a viral disease also known sumbu SARS-CoV-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The diagnosis is made by a positive PCR test, which is highly specific. CT has a higher sensitivity but lower specificity and can play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.COVID-19 has impacted some communities more than others. Adults 65 and older, people with pre-existing health conditions, Latinos, Blacks, Pacific Islanders, people who are low-income, and our essential worker community all face higher rates of infection and death. Key indicators that determine...Analysis of Economic Impacts of COVID-19. When assessing the economic impacts on civil aviation, ICAO works with many different scenarios in hukum to reflect the very uncertain nature of the current situation and the rapidly changing environment.These COVID-19 Analytical Snapshots are designed to capture the latest information and analysis in a fast-moving environment. Topics will be repeated from time to time sumbu analysis develops. If you have an item to include, please email us at [email protected] Translation of the snapshots is ongoing.Analytical Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer's idea about the phenomenon surrounding. "Eksposisi Analitik yaitu referensi yang mengecam lamunan penulis tentang Ingin rujuk menurut p mengenai Brainly? ajukan pertanyaan tentang tugas sekolahmu. dapatkan penjelasan bukan hanya reaksi.

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COVID-19: Scientific Updates - ISGLOBAL

The epidemic –now pandemic– of the new coronavirus is advancing at a staggering pace. Fortunately, the scientific studies and evidence on the virus (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease (COVID-19) are also advancing at great speed.   

In this section, which we will regularly update, we will summarise the most relevant emerging information on SARS-CoV-2.

[Evidence published between 09/06/2021 and 15/06/2021]

Looking for bat viruses

Researchers in the Chinese province of Yunnan province discovered 24 new coronaviruses in bats, including what could be a very close relative to SARS-CoV-2

More on Delta

Data from England and from Scotland indicate that Delta (B1617.2) is 40-60% more transmissible than Alpha (B1117) and the risk of hospitalization with is 2x higher in those with the Delta variant pasak compared to Alpha. Two doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca and Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines were highly effective (96% and 92%, respectively) in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalisation in people infected with the Delta variant. No rise in reinfections is observed for the moment.

According to sources from England, the Delta variant may be associated with different symptoms than the original variant. The most frequent symptom now is headache, followed by sore throat, runny nose, and fever (more like a “bad cold” in young people).

Ageing cells

Senescent cells become hyperinflammatory in response to pathogens, and aged mice were more disposed to severe inflammation and death from infection with a coronavirus related to SARS-CoV-2. These findings would help to explain why elderly and chronically ill patients are especially vulnerable to COVID19.

Long-lived immunity

Two more studies point to a robust and long-lasting immunity after infection. One study found long-lasting plasma cells (which produce anti-Spike antibodies) in the bone marrow of patients 7-8 months after infection, even in those who experienced mild symptoms. Another study found that virus-specific B cells remain relatively stable 6 to 12 months after infection, and that one single vaccine dose can induce high levels of neutralising antibodies effective against all circulating variants.

Anticoagulants and COVID-19

Aspirin doesn't improve chances of survival for patients hospitalized with COVID-19, according to the RECOVERY trial. However, anticoagulants given poros prophylaxis may increase survival of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

More on vaccines

Another highly effective vaccine

Novavax announced Phase 3 results for its protein subunit vaccine: 93% efficacy against moderate or severe disease caused by circulating variants of concern, and 91% efficacy in high-risk populations (over 65 or with comorbidities). The study enrolled 29,960 participants in the U.S. and Mexico. A total of 77 cases were observed: 63 in the placebo group (of which 10 moderate and four severe) and 14 in the vaccine group.

Lower risk of infection

COVID-19 vaccination reduced the number of new SARS-CoV-2 infections, with the largest benefit received after two vaccinations and against symptomatic and high viral burden infections, and with no evidence of a difference between the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines, according to a study in the UK.

Another study in Israel with over 6,000 individuals estimated Pfizer’s vaccine reduced the risk of infection by 61% two weeks after the first dose and 89% two weeks after two vaccine doses.

T cells and variants

A study of antibody and T cell responses from individuals vaccinated with Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine shows reduced neutralizing antibody activity against P.1 (Gamma) and B1.351 (Beta) variants, but T cell responses against all variants were similar.

[Evidence published between 02/06/2021 and 08/06/2021]

How dangerous is Delta?

Preliminary maklumat from the UK suggests that infections with the B1617.2 (Delta) variant could be more likely to require hospitalization, but more maklumat are needed to confirm this. The positive news is that its transmissibility is not as high pasak initially thought (40-50% higher than Alpha instead of 75% higher). Plus, full vaccination remains effective against disease caused by this variant. Only 3.7% of Delta cases occurred in fully vaccinated people. The Delta variant in England now accounts for 73% of sequenced cases.

Beware this summer

A study in collaboration with the SeqCOVID-SPAIN consortium shows that a variant (EU1) that emerged in Spain in early summer of 2020 quickly spread across Europe. This was not due to increased transmissibility but to more travel and less screening and containment.

Predictor of death

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood was identified aksis the most important predictor of mortality in patients with severe COVID-19.

Long-lasting antibodies

Repeated testing of IgM, IgG, anti-RBD IgG, and NAb titers in 215 COVID-19 patients during 10 months shows a very small decline after 10 months (except for IgM), regardless of age or severity of illness.

Latest on treatments

Up the nose

A single intranasal dose of an engineered IgM neutralising antibody conferred prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19 in mice, even when infected with P.1 or B1.351 variants. The engineered IgM is >200-fold more potent than its parental IgG in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 and all major variants, in vitro.

Under the skin

The FDA authorised the subcutaneous delivery of (*19*)’s antibody cocktail (REGEN-COV) in non-hospitalized patients, which showed it reduced of hospitalisation or death by 70% in high-risk patients.

The cocktail retains neutralization potency against all current SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) and of Interest (VOI), according to a study published this week.

And on vaccines

Also under the skin

An Australian team developed a high-density microarray patch that delivers SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins directly to the skin. One single dose of the patch induced good cellular and antibody responses in mice, even against circulating variants, and protected them against disease, according to a study that has not yet been peer-reviewed.

Combining vaccines

Four studies (not yet peer reviewed) posted this week show that a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine followed by a second dose of the Pfizer vaccine is well tolerated and induces potent humoral and cellular responses. Three of the studies (one from Spain, and two from Germany) did not include a comparison group vaccinated with two doses of AstraZeneca, but a fourth small study (also in Germany) did. This study showed that heterologous vaccination led to a significant 11.5-fold increase in anti-Spike IgG, poros compared to the 2.9-fold increase after homologous AZ/AZ vaccination. It also induced significantly higher frequencies of Spike-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and, in particular, higher titers of neutralizing antibodies against the B.1.351 (jongos) and the P.1 (gamma) variants of concern.


Some cases of myocarditis and pericarditis in young adults have been reported after vaccination with mRNA vaccines, more frequently after the second dose. In most cases, the symptoms improve rapidly after medications and rest.

More than 2 billion doses of vaccines have been administered worldwide. Poorer countries have received less than 1%.

[Evidence published between 26/05/2021 and 01/06/2021]

Not only deaths

A rough first estimate suggests that pasak much as 30% of the COVID-19 health burden could be due to COVID-induced disability, not death. Using the right indicators of disability and disease will help evaluate cost-effective strategies in different countries.

New variant names

The WHO announced a simpler naming system for SARS-CoV-2 variants. Each variant of concern or of interest will receive a name from the Greek alphabet. B.1.1.7, the variant first identified in Britain, will be known poros Alpha and B.1.351, (first seen in South Africa), will be Beta. P.1, (first seen in Brazil) will be Gamma and B.1.671.2, the so-called Indian variant, is Delta.

Unequal viral loads

A German team analysed PCR samples of more than 25,000 cases with different symptom severities. They found that the youngest had a lower viral load than older subjects, and individuals who required hospitalization aras higher viral loads over the entire time course. 8% of subjects aras very high viral loads in the throat, and one third of them were pre-symptomatic, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic.


A study finds that over 90% of critically ill COVID-19 patients aras IgM antibodies reactive against 260 self-antigens expressed by different organs. These autoantibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19.

Indirect protection

Two studies (not yet peer reviewed) show that vaccinated individuals provide indirect protection to their household members. A study in Finland with vaccinated healthcare workers shows that mRNA-based vaccines not only prevented infections among vaccinated individuals but also (although to a lesser degree) among unvaccinated household members (43% of indirect protection by 10 weeks after the first dose). Another study in Scotland shows that household members of vaccinated HCWs takat a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 compared to those of unvaccinated HCWs.

The force of T cells

An analysis of humoral (antibody) and cellular immune responses in healthcare workers vaccinated with mRNA vaccines shows that, despite a decrease in neutralizing capacity of antibodies against the B1.351 variant, no differences in CD4+ T-cell activation were observed. These results indicate that the mutations in B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Spike do not evade T-cell-mediated immunity induced by vaccination with the original S protein.

Vaccinating teenagers?

A clinical trial with Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine in 12-to-15-year-old recipients showed a good safety profile and high efficacy against COVID-19. The study included 2,260 adolescents. 16 cases occurred in placebo group and none in vaccinated group. The vaccine has been cleared by EMA for its use in children ages 12-15.

Moderna will also seek authorization to EMA after announcing similar results.

Yes, but…

However, many health experts have been question ing the ethics- and the logic- of vaccinating teenagers in rich countries when vulnerable people in low- and middle-income countries have not been vaccinated. In this sense, Science identifies 4 actions to fight vaccine inequality, and how long this may take: i) donating doses through COVAX (weeks to months), ii) expanding production (months), iii) sharing knowledge (months to years), and iv) building plants worldwide (years).

[Evidence published between 19/05/2021 and 25/05/2021]

Vaccines versus variants

COVID-19 vaccines currently deployed in Europe are effective against variants circulating in the region, says WHO-Europe.

In effect, preliminary statistik released by Public Health England shows that vaccines remain highly effective (around 80%) against symptomatic disease caused by the B1617.2 (“Indian”) variant, but two doses are necessary to achieve protection. A slight turun in vaccine efficacy was observed for both vaccines: from 94% to 88% for Pfizer from 66% to 60% for AstraZeneca. The difference between vaccines may be due to the fact that the second dose of the AZ vaccine is given later and takes more time to reach maximum protection.

A little help from Apps

The number of cases averted by the NHS COVID-19 app was estimated to be between 284,000 and 594,000. The app was used by 16.5 million users (28% of the population) in England and Wales.

More on disease pathology


One stud shows that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect and kill insulin-producing pancreatic cells, which could explain why some patients develop type 1 diabetes after COVID-19.


The other one shows a dramatic increase in autoantibodies targeting components of the immune system in severe COVID-19 patients, gandar compared to uninfected individuals. These autoantibodies could exacerbate disease severity, pasak observed in a mouse teladan of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Virus-specific antibodies

Some antibodies found in convalescent patients may actually enhance viral infectivity, according to a study. These antibodies, which target the N-terminal region of the Spike protein, were found at higher levels in severe patients.

Further evidence supporting long-lived immunity

Two studies published this week suggest the immunological memory after alamiah infection is long-lived. One showed a slow rate of decline of anti-spike antibodies sumbu time progressed. The other found that even after mild infections, a robust antibody response is induced and plasma cells (which produce antibodies) are detected in the bone marrow 7 to 8 months after infection.


A Swedish study with a cohort of individuals who suffered mild COVID-19 shows that 26% of them presented at least 1 moderate to severe symptom lasting for 2 months or more, and 15% for at least 8 months. For around 10% of these individuals, these symptoms disrupted work, social, and/or home life.

Good news in children

A follow-up of paediatric patients who developed inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) shows that few sequelae were observed after 6 months, despite severe initial illness.

Promising peptides

Queensland researchers have developed two peptide-based drugs that could prevent COVID-19 infection and disease. One peptide reduces viral entry by inhibiting viral interaction with the ACE2 receptor. The other one reduces viral replication by inhibiting viral interaction with a host protein. The researchers hope to dahulu testing them in humans in a few months.

Another vaccine candidate

A vaccine that consists of virus-like particles and is produced in plants has given promising phase 1 and phase 2 results. The vaccine was well tolerated and induced good titers of neutralising antibodies (up to 10-fold higher than those in convalescent patients).

13,000 deaths avoided

according to estimates from Public Health England, vaccines have prevented 13,000 deaths in people over 60 years of age in England, up to May 9, 2021. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic disease was very similar for both Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines (55-70% after one dose and 85-90% after two doses).

[Evidence published between 12/05/2021 and 18/05/2021]

The sequencing gap

Researchers point out that there are not enough viral samples being sequenced globally to keep track of emerging variants. Wealthy nations are doing most of the sequencing, while variants are likely circulating unnoticed in many countries with high viral transmission. “It would be much more interesting to sequence the last 1,000 cases in the Central African Republic than the next 100,000 cases in Germany,” says one of the experts interviewed.

Markers that predict severe COVID-19 disease

Certain markers associated with the activation of the complement cascade (a part of the immune system that helps clear microbes and damaged cells) are elevated in patients with severe COVID-19, as compared to other non-COVID patients with respiratory failure, according to a study by Yale and Washington University.

Also, asymptomatic or mild disease was found to be associated with an early and strong response of CD8+ T cells and plasmablasts (that differentiate into antibody-secreting cells), and the absence of systemic inflammation, according to a study that analysed serial samples from 200 infected individuals with a range of disease severities. In contrast, hospitalized patients paras systemic inflammation that was already evident after developing the first symptoms.

New vaccine candidates enter Phase 3

Inovio published safety and immunogenicity results of the Phase 2 trial (4oo participants) for its DNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine was well-tolerated and induced good humoral and cellular responses.

Sanofi and GSK also announced positive results for the phase 2 clinical trial of their COVID-19 vaccine, based on recombinant Spike proteins. They said one single dose generated strong levels of neutralizing antibodies in recipients across all ages, but results have not yet been published. They will test two formulations in their Phase 3 trial - one targeting the original Wuhan strain and the other targeting the B.1.351 variant).

Mixing vaccines

Preliminary statistik from the Com-CoV study in the UK, which is testing the benefits of combining doses of different COVID-19 vaccines, suggests that mixing AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccine doses causes more moderate side effects (such poros fever or headaches) than using the same vaccine for both doses. The adverse reactions however were temporary and there were no other safety concerns.

The ISCIII in Spain announced preliminary results for its CombivacS study, showing that a second dose of Pfizer 8-12 weeks after a first dose of AstraZeneca is safe and induces good levels of anti-Spike antibodies.

Easier storage

The EMA has said that Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine can be stored up to one month at 2-8 C (instead of only five days), which will facilitate the vaccine’s handling and roll-out in Europe and beyond.

[Evidence published between 05/05/2021 and 11/05/2021]

Counting the dead

A new analysis by the Institute for Health Metrics at the University of Washington suggests 6.9 million people worldwide have died from COVID-19, more than twice pasak officially reported. In certain countries such as India, Mexico, or Russia, the number of deaths has been dramatically undercounted. The analysis also estimates that roughly 2.5 million more people will die of COVID-19 in the next six months.

From interest to concern

Public Health England has decided to “upgrade” one of the three types of the Indian variant (B.1.617.2) from variant of interest to variant of concern, due to the observation that it may be spreading faster than the others, and poros fast aksis the B117 variant. This B.1.617.2 variant does not harbour the E484 mutation associated with enhanced immune escape.

Few people carry high viral loads 

Only 2% of infected individuals carry 90% of virions circulating in the community at a given time, according to a study that analysed saliva from SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals that were asymptomatic or presymptomatic. The study does not allow to determine whether everyone passes through a short time period of extremely high viral load. In any case, it suggests that at a given time, some people may be more infectious than others.

The secret lies in the speed

An analysis of humoral (antibody) immune responses in patients with COVID-19 with varying disease severities reveals that mortality does not correlate with the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, but rather with the speed at which they are produced. Higher mortality correlated with slower seroconversion.

Beyond the receptor binding domain

A careful analysis of the antibody repertoire to the Spike protein in convalescent subjects shows that a high percentage of antibodies are directed against protein sequences (epitopes) outside the domain that binds to the ACE2 receptor. One of these epitopes (in the so-called N-terminal domain) is often mutated among emerging viral variants, suggesting these mutations have important implications for immune protection.

Vaccines work against variants

A single booster dose with of Moderna’s mRNA vaccine containing the sequence of the B.1.351 (“South African”) variant in previously vaccinated individuals increased titers of neutralising antibodies against this and the P.1 (“Brazil”) variant, according to the company.

However, updated vaccines may not even be necessary to fight these variants, according to real-world statistik from Qatar, where nearly all cases are due to B.1.1.7 or B.1.351. Two doses of the Pfizer /BioNTech vaccine was 90% effective against B.1.1.7 and 75% effective against B.1.351, for both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. It was 97% effective against severe, critical, or fatal illness, for both variants. One dose provided much lower protection, particularly against the B.1.351 variant.

Furthermore, a study (not yet peer-reviewed) that followed convalescent individuals during 12 months indicates that immunity in these individuals will be long-lasting and that vaccination with the available mRNA vaccines should confer protection against circulating variants.

Expanding global access to vaccines

The WHO also approved China’s Sinopharm inactivated virus vaccine for emergency use. This approval will expand vaccine options for low- and middle-income countries. The vaccine’s efficacy for symptomatic and hospitalized disease was estimated to be 79%, all age groups combined.

A first step towards a pancoronavirus vaccine?

A vaccine consisting of nanoparticles composed of many receptor binding multimeric receptor binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 induced antibody responses in macaques, capable of cross-neutralizing bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351. The study also shows that the current mRNA vaccines may provide some protection against future outbreaks of other related coronaviruses.

[Evidence published between 28/04/2021 and 04/05/2021]

Smarter testing?

An extensive review of more than 30 studies suggests that saliva is poros sensitive poros nasopharyngeal swabs for PCR-mediated SARS-CoV-2 detection, and much less costly. Thus, saliva samples could replace anuswara swabs in most populations being tested.

A study in England shows that berpola testing of a manasuka population within the community can quickly detect SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks even if the number of infections is low. This surveillance at the community level could speed up public health responses.

Zooming in on COVID pathology

Several studies published this week look at the single cell level to get a better overall picture of the damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. One study found profound alterations in different cell types obtained from the lung of people who died from COVID-19. Another study analysed single cells beyond the lung (kidney, liver, and heart and found similar results, while experiments with “intestines in a dish” showed that SARS-Cov-2 infection interfered with the immune response in the gut. Another single-cell study focusing on cerebral spine fluid identified SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that can also objek neural antigens, suggesting that the neurologic sequalae of COVID-19 may have an autoimmune origin.

Behind the loss of smell

The loss of smell in many patients may be the results of virus that infects and persists in the human olfactory epithelium, which may in turn lead to prolonged inflammation, according to a study.

Obesity: risk confirmed

A study in the US found that, at a body mass index (BMI) above 23, there is a linear increase in COVID-19 hospitalisation and death. The risk was particularly notable in people younger than 40 years and in people of Black ethnicity. Another study with over 70,000 patients in Mexico shows that obesity alone increased almost three-fold the risk of dying of COVID-19. Having other diseases such as diabetes increased the risk even further.

A select group of superneutralisers

A study in convalescent individuals shows a large variation in the capacity of their antibodies to neutralise the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Around 3% were “superneutralisers”, 21% were high neutralizers, 45% were average, 10% were low and 20% were non-neutralisers.

One dose, two doses

An analysis by the US CDC shows that one vaccine dose decreased hospitalisation of adults above 65 years by 64%, while both doses (full vaccination) decreased it by 94%.

A study with healthcare workers shows that individuals who were previously infected produce neutralizing antibodies that are effective against B.1.1.7 (“British”) and B.1.351 (“South African”) variants after one vaccine dose. In contrast, healthcare workers without history of infection showed reduced immunity against these variants after one single dose, confirming the need for two doses in these individuals.

According to a modelling study, one-dose strategies may reduce infections in the short term but may increase the potential for viral evolution if the immune responses are suboptimal and the virus continues to replicate in some vaccinated people.

Vaccines and transmission: much-awaited results

A study in England shows that one single dose of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines can cut household transmission by 50%. The study was the first to follow household contacts of infected individuals who were previously vaccinated or not.

[Evidence published between 22/04/2021 and 27/04/2021]

Transmission and children

A study of household transmission in Wuhan suggests that children and adolescents are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but more infectious than older individuals. The findings also indicate that people are most infectious before developing symptoms (presymptomatic), but those who do not develop symptoms (asymptomatic) are less infectious than those who do.

In the absence of vaccines for children, the rapid identification of silent infections among kids will be key to breaking transmission chains, according to a modelling study with simulations.

Post-covid sequelae

The largest study to date, with over 70,000 hospitalised and 13,000 non-hospitalised COVID-19 patients, shows these patients suffer from several sequalae beyond the first 30 days of illness. These include respiratory, neurocognitive, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and mental health disorders, pasak well gandar fatigue, muscle pain and anemia. The risk of post-covid sequelae was highest among those with severe disease.

T cells lead the way

A study (not yet peer-reviewed) shows that T cell responses almost reach their maximal level already after the first vaccine dose, while antibodies need two doses to reach maximal levels. In fact, the magnitude of the CD4 T cell response after the first dose predicted the levels of CD8 T cells and neutralizing antibodies after the second dose.

A fadil antibody?

The analysis of a large number of B cells (which produce antibodies) from COVID-19 patients identified a series of potently neutralizing antibodies targeting the Spike protein. One of these antibodies was capable of fully neutralising the original SARS-CoV-2, the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, and even SARS-CoV. These antibodies could help design future treatments and vaccines with broad effect against coronaviruses.

One dose for previously-infected people

Yet another study shows that one vaccine dose is enough for previously-infected individuals. Naïve individuals required both vaccine doses for optimal increases in antibodies, particularly for neutralizing titers against the B.1.351 variant. In recovered individuals, antibody and memory B cell responses were significantly boosted after the first vaccine dose and did not increase after the second dose.

Vaccines and pregnancy

Preliminary findings of a study with 35,691 pregnant participants do not show any safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines.

More clues on the rare cases of thrombosis

The German team that first studied the thrombosis cases associated to the AstraZeneca vaccine provides further evidence on the possible mechanisms. Certain non-viral vaccine components related to the vaccine fabrication process may be favouring the production of antibodies that activate the platelets and trigger the thrombotic events. The paper has not yet been peer-reviewed.

1 billion doses and a stark gap

Only 15 months after the pandemic started, more than 1 billion (1000, 000, 000) vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. However, almost 9 out of 10 have been administered in high and upper middle-income countries. Only 0.2% of these doses have reached the poorest countries.

[Evidence published between 14/04/2021 and 21/04/2021]

This week, the world surpassed 3 million COVID-19 deaths.

Innocent until proven guilty

Another variant first identified in India (B.1.617) has raised some sirine because it presents two mutations in Spike (E484Q and L452R) that have shown evidence of antibody escape in the laboratory. But there is no evidence yet that the variant is more transmissible or can escape immunity. This variant deserves close monitoring but is not cause for concern, experts say.

Super antibodies

Antibodies obtained from a convalescent COVID-19 patient were found to neutralise multiple SARS-CoV2 variants of concern and SARS. A team from Scripps Institute identifies the binding sites that facilitate cross-reactivity of these antibodies. These findings provide valuable information for designing vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against current and future SARS-related viruses

Lower risk of reinfection

A study with young, healthy US Marine recruits shows that seropositive individuals (i.e. with antibodies to SARS-CoV-2) aras about one fifth the risk of subsequent infection pasak compared with seronegative individuals (10% vs 48%). Furthermore, infected seropositive participants takat viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants, meaning they are less likely to transmit.

More on vaccines

Data from Chile

Chile has announced that Sinovac’s vaccine is 80% effective against death and 67% effective against COVID-19 symptoms. Protection after one single dose was much lower. Almost 34% of the country’s population has been fully vaccinated, 93% of which have received the CoronaVac vaccine.

Responses in older people

Single doses of either the Pfizer of the Oxford / AstraZeneca vaccine in older people induce humoral immunity (antibodies) in most donors and are greatly enhanced in those who aras a previous infection, according to a study (not yet peer-reviewed) in the UK. Cellular responses (T cells) are weaker but overall better with the AstraZeneca jab.

Yes, vaccines work!

The US CDC has identified some 5,800 cases of SARS-Cov-2 infection among more than 66 million fully vaccinated Americans. These “breakthrough” cases, which are defined sumbu positive PCR results at least two weeks after patients the second dose, represent 0.008% of the fully vaccinated population. 7% of these infections (i.e. 0.00056%) needed hospitalization and only 7 fully vaccinated people died (0.00001%).

Meanwhile, a study on the effects of vaccination among nursing home residents, staff and healthcare workers in Catalonia shows an 85%-96% reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection in all three cohorts, and even bigger reductions (>95%) in hospitalisations and mortality amongst nursing home residents for up to two months.

A pan-coronavirus vaccine?

Developing a vaccine capable of protecting against known and unknown coronaviruses (at least those pertaining to the abdi coronavirus family) is possible, and has suddenly become a terpilih priority. Many teams are currently using different strategies to achieve this goal.

Rare thrombosis cases

EMA’s safety committee concluded that the unusual thrombosis cases linked to the Johnson & Johnson vaccine were very similar to those observed with the AstraZeneca vaccine and that unusual blood clots with low blood platelets should be listed aksis very rare side effect of the vaccine. The agency emphasised that the overall benefits of the vaccine in preventing COVID-19 outweigh the risks of side effects.

Mental health

The first study to examine suicides in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries found that, in high and upper middle-income countries, suicide numbers remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic. The situation however may change poros economic effects are felt.

[Evidence published between 07/04/2021 and 13/04/2021]

Neurological and psychological sequelae

A retrospective study with almost 250,000 COVID-19 survivors shows that 33% of them aras a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis in the following 6 months, particularly those who takat severe COVID-19. However, almost 90% of these patients takat already received a neurological or psychological diagnosis before COVID-19, and the reported symptoms ranged from dementia and stroke to anxiety and insomnia.

Protection by bersahaja immunity

A follow-up study with over 25,000 health care workers in England shows that those with a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection takat an 84% lower risk of infection and a 93% reduction in symptomatic infections for at least 7 months.

Protection against variants

Yet another study shows that sera from convalescent individuals collected up to 9 months after symptoms effectively neutralized the dominant (D614G) and the B.1.1.7 variants, but takat reduced or no activity against B.1.351. Similar results were observed with sera from vaccinated individuals. These results indicate that B.1.351, but not B.1.1.7, may increase the risk of infection in immunized individuals.

Good news on treatments

Avoiding COVID-19 with antibody cocktails

(*19*) announced that its monoclonal antibody cocktail reduced by 81% the risk of developing COVID-19 after exposure. The study enrolled 1,500 healthy volunteers, each of whom shared a home with someone who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The mAb cocktail was given subcutaneously (instead of intravenously). In those who did develop the disease despite treatment, the symptoms resolved after one week, compared to three weeks for those on placebo.

Early treatment with an asthma drug

In a small controlled trial in the UK, patients were given budesonide (an inhaled corticosteroid commonly used for asthma) within 7 days of developing mild symptoms. Treated patients showed a significant reduction of clinical deterioration and reduced time to recovery as compared to the placebo group. In another, larger, clinical trial which involved more than 1,700 people at high risk (above 50 or 60 years of age), two daily inhalations of the drug also helped people at home recover more quickly from COVID-19. The results have not yet been peer-reviewed.

More on vaccines

The French pharmaceutical company Valneva reported positive phase 2 data for its COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on inactivated virus particles: it was well tolerated and induced neutralising antibody titres at or above levels seen in convalescent sera, as well pivot broad T cell responses. It plans to launch a phase 3 trial by end of April.

A study in Israel (not yet peer-reviewed) shows that the few infections observed in fully vaccinated people (two doses) were mostly due to the B.1.351 variant (first identified in South Africa), while those infected between the first and second dose were mostly infected by B1.1.7. These results confirm that two doses of the vaccine effectively protect against B1.1.7, and that B1.351 poses more of a risk but its spread can be curbed if mass-vaccination is coupled with non-pharmaceutical interventions.

Sinovac’s inactivated virus vaccine (CoronaVac) shows a 50% efficacy in preventing symptomatic disease but a 100% protection against severe disease, according to maklumat from the clinical trial performed in Brazil. Another study (not yet peer-reviewed) confirms that at least one dose of the vaccine showed 50% effectiveness against symptomatic infection and 35% effectiveness against all infections, in a context where the P1 variant is widely circulating.

Two studies (one in Germany and one in Norway) provide a possible explanation for the rare thrombotic events associated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. In all the cases studied, researchers found antibodies that bind to and activate platelets. The mechanisms leading to the production or the activation of these antibodies are being investigated. Researchers will closely monitor this type of events with the other COVID-19 vaccines based on adenoviral vectors. In fact, the EMA is supporting studies to identify cases, look for potential causes or risk factors, and evaluate whether the risk can be cut by reducing the amount of vaccine administered in each dose.


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